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Science Class 4th Grade » Unit 2: Powders and Crystals
Unit 2: Powders and Crystals Unit 2: Powders and Crystals

Unit 2 Powders and Crystals

 Unit 2: Powders & Crystals

  

Our second unit is a chemistry unit where we will learn about properties, powders, crystals, acids, bases, mixtures, solutions, and chemical reactions. 

 A powder is a substance that has been ground or pulverized into finely dispersed, loose, and solid particles.

A crystal is the solid form of a substance in which the atoms are arranged in repeating patterns.

 

Additional Vocabulary to Know

Acid

A substance with a pH less than 7 (the lower the number, the stronger the acid).  Has a sour taste and is capable of reacting with a base.

Acidic

Having the properties of an acid

Base

A substance with a pH higher than 7 (the higher the number, the stronger the base).  Is bitter to taste, slippery to the touch, and capable of reacting with an acid.

Basic

Having the properties of a base.

Chemical analysis

The process of determining the chemical makeup of a substance by observing its response to a series of tests.

Chemical Reaction

Two substances react to each other in a way that produces a change in each of them.

Compound

Made of 2 or more parts, elements, or ingredients.

Crystal

A solid form of a substance in which the atoms are arranged in repeating patterns.

Dissolve

When something is mixed into a liquid in an evenly distributed way, and is usually no longer visible as a separate substance.

Gas

Has neither a definite volume or a definite shape. It takes on the volume and shape of its container.

Indicator

A substance that shows – by change of color – that another particular substance is either present or absent.

Insoluble

Can’t be dissolved.

Liquid

Has a definite volume, but no definite shape.  Takes on the shape of the container that holds it.

Melt

A substance changes from a solid to a liquid state.

Mixture

A combination of 2 or more substances that are not changed chemically by being combined and can be easily separated.

Neutral

A substance that is neither acidic or basic; has a pH of 7.

Particle

A tiny piece of something.

pH

The scale on which scientists measure how acidic or basic a substance is.

Powder

A substance that has been ground or pulverized into finely dispersed, loose, solid particles.

Prediction

An educated guess of something that will happen.

Property

An observable characteristic or trait, such as color, shape, size, texture, smell, sound, etc.

Senses

How we receive information from the world through sight, touch, taste, smell, and sound.

Solid

Has a definite shape and volume.  Its shape and size can be measured.

Solution

Mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another.

 

It is important to remember that mixtures start in pieces.  Then you combine these pieces together.  You can pull the pieces of a mixture apart again and will end up with the same molecules (in the same amount) you started with.

 

 To practice separating mixtures in an interactive.

Solutions are groups of molecules that are mixed up in a completely even distribution.  For example, when you combine sugar and water, sugar dissolves and is spread throughout the glass of water.  The sugar is the solute (substance to be dissolved) and the water is the solvent (the one doing the dissolving).

 

 

pH Scale

The pH scale runs from pH 0 to pH 14.  Neutral solutions are exactly 7.  Acidic solutions have pH values less than 7.  Alkaline solutions have pH values of more than 7. 

 

 To watch a video about acids and bases.

 To practice identifying acids and alkalis using the pH scale.

Examples of Acids You Can Find in Your House 

 

Examples of Bases You Can Find in Your House

            

Chemical Reactions

A chemical reaction is a change that produces one or more new substances from some starting materials.  Examples are iron rust, burning candle, fireworks, etc.

   

 To learn more about chemistry.

 To see some experiments you could try with an adult.

 To have fun with online kitchen chemistry or home activities you can try with an adult.

 To see some crystal growing activities you could try with an adult.

 To complete a Chemistry Thinkquest.

 To learn about the science of cooking.

 To learn about solids, liquids, and gases and take a quiz.

 To complete a solids and liquids interactive.

 To complete an interactive on sorting matter into solids, liquids, and gases.

 To read an online book about solids.

 To read an online book about liquids.

 To read an online book about gases.







Mrs. Travis' Classroom
Dorchester County Public Schools
Choptank Elementary
1103 Maces Lane
Cambridge, Maryland 21613