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Human growth and development is the study of how people change as they go through life.


Development is similar for everyone, but each person grows and develops at an individual rate.





Areas of Development


Physical development - all the bodily changes that occur as a person grows and ages.


Intellectual development - a person’s ability to learn something and then apply this knowledge to new problems and experiences.


Emotional development - changes in a person’s ability to establish a unique identity and express feelings.


Social development - learning to interact with other people.




Hierarchy of Human Needs

Abraham Maslow developed a system of basic human needs.


Hierarchy of human needs:

Food, shelter, bodily comfort

Safety, security

To feel loved, have a sense of belonging

Self-esteem, approval

Desire to live up to one’s potential




Erik Erikson’s Theory of Personality Development

·        Life is a series of 8 stages from birth to death

·        Must meet challenge or crisis of each stage.

·        Positive outcome / negative outcome

·        How you meet challenge affects personality development





Stage 1: Trust and Mistrust

·        Birth to One Year

·        Positive outcome

·        Love, affection and stable environment = trust

·        Negative outcome mistreated, abused or neglected = mistrust.



Stage 2: Autonomy and Doubt

·        Ages One to Three

·        Seek to control self & environment.

·        Positive outcome

·        Freedom to explore = autonomy or self confidence

·        Negative outcome

·        No freedom = feeling of worthlessness.



Stage 3: Initiative and Guilt

·        Ages Three to Five

·        Child expresses desire to take initiative in activities

·        Positive outcome

·        Master peer relationships and language

·        Negative outcome

·        Child develops feelings of guilt that will affect self-directed activity throughout life



Stage 4: Industry and Inferiority

·        Ages Six to Eleven

·        Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play)

·        Positive outcome

·        Self discipline and development of natural talents.

·        Negative outcome

·        Feeling of inferiority.



Stage 5: Identity and Identity Confusion

·        Ages Twelve to Eighteen

·        Form ego identity & self-image

·        Positive outcome

·        Build sense of identity/self, who they are, what they want to do, what they believe in.

·        Negative outcome

·        No identity = identity confusion



Stage 6: Intimacy and Isolation

·        Ages Nineteen to Thirty five

·        Work to build intimacy and mutual caring.

·        Positive outcome

·        Marriage and children

·        Negative outcome

·        No intimacy = loneliness and isolation.



Stage 7: Generativity and Stagnation

·        Ages Thirty five to Fifty

·        Active involvement in contributing something lasting to world.

·        Positive outcome

·        Raise children, activities, community service

·        Negative outcome

·        Unable to contribute = boredom, restlessness, feeling that life is useless.



Stage 8: Integrity and Despair

·        Ages Fifty and Up

·        Evaluation of entire life

·        Positive outcome

·        Look back on life with contentment.

·        Negative outcome

·        Good perspective on life.

·        No integrity = despair.





·        No one moves through all 8 stages with only successes.

·        Successes need to outnumber the failures.

·        Can become stuck in a stage.

·        Struggle to create a healthy personality is what makes life satisfying.






Infancy and Childhood


·        Accidents and injuries

·        Abuse and neglect

·        Malnutrition

·        Failure to thrive

·        Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

·        Congenital abnormalities

·        Communicable diseases



·        Eating Disorders

·        Depression and Suicide

·        Chemical abuse

·        Sexually Transmitted Diseases

·        Pregnancy


Early – Middle Adulthood

·        Cardiovascular Disease

·        Cancer

·        Diabetes


Late Adulthood

·        Cerebrovascular Accident

·        Osteoporosis

·        Dementia and Alzheimer’s

·        Abuse and neglect



Stages of Death and Dying


Denial  - This is the “No not me” stage, which usually occurs when a person is first told of a terminal illness. The person cannot accept the reality of death or the person feels that loved ones cannot accept the truth.


Anger – This occurs when the person is no longer able to deny death and may strike out against others or become hostile or bitter. Statements like “why me?” are common.


Bargaining – The person has accepted death but wants more time to live. He/she may make promises to God for more time. The will to live is very strong at this time and patients fight hard to achieve goals.


Depression This occurs when the person realizes death will come and he/she will no longer be able to be with his/her families or be able to complete some of his/her goals. He/she may experience overwhelming despair and/or great sadness.


Acceptance This is the final stage. The person has accepted the fact that he/she will die and may begin to help others

around him/her deal with his/her death.


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