Using Verbs Using Verbs

                          Notes over Using Verbs

I. Principle Parts of a Verb

   A. Present
   B. Present participle
   C. Past
   D. Past participle

II. Forming the Principle Parts of a Regular Verb

   A. Present: the verb itself; add s to make the verb singular
   B. Present participle: add the suffix -ing to the present form
   C. Past: add the suffix -ed to the present form
   D. Past participle: add the suffix - ed to the present form

III. Basic Forms of the Six Tenses and the Principle Parts Used

   A. Present: present
   B. Past: past
   C. Future: will + present
   D. Present perfect: has/have + past participle
   E. Past perfect: had + past participle
   F. Future perfect: will have + past participle

IV. Progressive Forms of Verbs

   A. Present progressive: am/is/are + present participle
   B. Past progressive: was/were + present participle
   C. Future progressive: will be + present participle
   D. Present perfect progressive: has/have been + present participle
   E. Past perfect progressive: had been + present participle
   F. Future perfect progressive: will have been + present participle

V. Active and Passive Voice

   A. Active voice is when the subject performs the action.

       Example: Kerry cleaned her room.
       (This sentence is in active voice because Kerry did the cleaning.)

   B. Passive voice is when the subject receives the action.

       Example: The room was cleaned by Kerry.
       (This sentence is in passive voice because the room did not DO the action; it received the action.)

       1. Passive voice is always a verb phrase made from a form of be plus a past participle.

       2. Generally, write in active voice. Passive voice is acceptable if the performer of the action is unknown is or unimportant.

VI. Troublesome Verbs 

   A. ain't: is incorrect English and should not be used
   B. did/done: done can be used as a verb only if used with have or has
   C. dragged/drug: drag is a regular verb so the past and past participle forms are dragged. Drug is not a verb.
   D. gone/went: gone should be used as a verb only if used with have or has
   E. have/of: of is never a verb so it should never be part of a verb phrase (Example: I should of studied for the test is incorrect. I should have studied for the test is correct.)
   F. lay/lie

       1. lay means "to place" and it should have a direct object. The principal parts are as follows:

          a. principle: lay
          b. present participle: laying
          c. past: laid
          d. past participle: laid

       2. lie means "to rest or recline" and it does not have a direct object. The principle parts are as follows:

          a. present: lie
          b. present participle: lying
          c. past: lay
          d. past participle: lain

   G. learn/teach: learn means "to receive knowledge" while teach means "to give knowledge"
   H. leave/let: leave means "to allow to remain" while let means "to permit"
   I. raise/rise: raise is usually followed by a direct object while rise is not
   J. saw/seen: seen can be used as a verb only with has or have
   K. says/said: remember that says is present tense and said is past tense
   L. set/sit: set means "to place" and it should have a direct object: sit means to rest in an upright position

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