English Notes » Using Verbs
Notes over Using Verbs
I. Principle Parts of a Verb
B. Present participle
D. Past participle
II. Forming the Principle Parts of a Regular Verb
A. Present: the verb itself; add s to make the verb singular
B. Present participle: add the suffix -ing to the present form
C. Past: add the suffix -ed to the present form
D. Past participle: add the suffix - ed to the present form
III. Basic Forms of the Six Tenses and the Principle Parts Used
A. Present: present
B. Past: past
C. Future: will + present
D. Present perfect: has/have + past participle
E. Past perfect: had + past participle
F. Future perfect: will have + past participle
IV. Progressive Forms of Verbs
A. Present progressive: am/is/are + present participle
B. Past progressive: was/were + present participle
C. Future progressive: will be + present participle
D. Present perfect progressive: has/have been + present participle
E. Past perfect progressive: had been + present participle
F. Future perfect progressive: will have been + present participle
V. Active and Passive Voice
A. Active voice is when the subject performs the action.
Example: Kerry cleaned her room.
(This sentence is in active voice because Kerry did the cleaning.)
B. Passive voice is when the subject receives the action.
Example: The room was cleaned by Kerry.
(This sentence is in passive voice because the room did not DO the action; it received the action.)
1. Passive voice is always a verb phrase made from a form of be plus a past participle.
2. Generally, write in active voice. Passive voice is acceptable if the performer of the action is unknown is or unimportant.
VI. Troublesome Verbs
A. ain't: is incorrect English and should not be used
B. did/done: done can be used as a verb only if used with have or has
C. dragged/drug: drag is a regular verb so the past and past participle forms are dragged. Drug is not a verb.
D. gone/went: gone should be used as a verb only if used with have or has
E. have/of: of is never a verb so it should never be part of a verb phrase (Example: I should of studied for the test is incorrect. I should have studied for the test is correct.)
1. lay means "to place" and it should have a direct object. The principal parts are as follows:
a. principle: lay
b. present participle: laying
c. past: laid
d. past participle: laid
2. lie means "to rest or recline" and it does not have a direct object. The principle parts are as follows:
a. present: lie
b. present participle: lying
c. past: lay
d. past participle: lain
G. learn/teach: learn means "to receive knowledge" while teach means "to give knowledge"
H. leave/let: leave means "to allow to remain" while let means "to permit"
I. raise/rise: raise is usually followed by a direct object while rise is not
J. saw/seen: seen can be used as a verb only with has or have
K. says/said: remember that says is present tense and said is past tense
L. set/sit: set means "to place" and it should have a direct object: sit means to rest in an upright position
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