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Phrases and Clauses Phrases and Clauses
                   Notes over Phrases and Clauses

I. A phrase is a group of words that functions in a sentence as a single part of speech. Phrases do not contain a subject and a verb.

II. Types of phrases

   A. Prepositional phrases: begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun

      1. Adjective phrase: a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun by telling what kind or which one.

      2. Adverb phrase: a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, adjective or adverb. Adverb phrases point out where, when, in what manner or to what extent.

      3. Appositive phrase: a noun or a pronoun with modifiers. It is placed next to the word it is modifying to add information or details.

      4. Participial phrase: a present or past participle that is modified by an adverb or adverb phrase or that has a complement. The entire phrase acts as an adjective in the sentence. Note: A participle is a form of a verb that acts as an adjective.

      5. Gerund phrase: a gerund with modifiers or a complement all acting together as a noun. Note: A gerund is form of a verb that acts as a noun.

      6. Infinitive phrase: an infinitive with modifiers or a complement, all acting together as a single part of speech. Note: An infinitive is the form of a verb that comes after the word to and acts as a noun, an adjective or an adverb.

III. A clause is a group of words within its own subject and verb.

IV. Types of clauses: 

   A. Independent clause: has a subject and a verb and can stand by itself as a complete sentence.

   B. Subordinate clauses: has a subject and a verb but cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.

      1. Adjective clauses 

         a. Modify nouns or pronouns
         b. Answer the questions: Which one? What kind?
         c. Usually starts with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, that) but can also start with an adverb such as when or where)

      2. Adverb clauses

         a. Modify verb, adjective or adverb
         b. Answer the questions: Where? When? In what manner? To what extent? Under what condition? or Why?
         c. Begin with a subordinate conjunction (Addams Family song)


V. Classifying sentences by structure

   A. Simple sentence: has one independent clause

   B. Compound sentence: has two or more independent clauses

   C. Complex sentence: has one independent clause and one dependent clause

   D. Compound-Complex sentence: has two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.





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